June 2010     Peak Climbing Section, Loma Prieta Chapter, Sierra Club   Vol. 44 , No. 6


General Meeting

Date          June 8, 2010

Time          7:30 – 9:30

Where       PCC

                  3921 E. Bayshore Road

                  Palo Alto, CA             

Program   The Haute Route Ski Tour of the Alps

Presenter Louise Wholey

Come enjoy the magnificent beauty of the Alps on the Haute Route from Chamonix to Zermatt. Louise will regale you with lots of stories from this incredible adventure. Many impressive peaks along the way beckon us return for some of the finest climbing in the Alps.

Directions from 101

Exit at San Antonio Road, go east to the first traffic light, turn left and follow Bayshore Rd to the PCC on the corner of Corporation Way. A sign marking the PCC is out front. Park and enter in the back of the building.

Google     http://tinyurl.com/28ngaw

Update: Gretchen Luepke Bynum

For those of you who are long time PCS participants, you know my wife Gretchen Luepke Bynum who regularly comes to PCS meetings, the Christmas Party, and has in the past occasionally climbed a peak.

In the last six weeks, Gretchen has been afflicted with a strange neurological disorder that has reduced her from a normal healthy person to a bed ridden invalid. She is no longer able to walk, has random jerky movements with her arms, and struggles to speak. She does however hear everything.

We have so far done an MRI scan, performed an EEG, performed a spinal tap, and run numerous blood tests. The initial good news had been that stroke, brain cancer, and MS have been ruled out.

We then took her to UCSF Medical Center and had a second MRI performed and other neurological experts looked at the results. They now say she has Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease which is the human form of Mad Cow disease. This disease is untreatable, incurable, and fatal. She may have just a few more months. I was hoping the experts at UCSF would find something else. We are currently treating her with an experimental drug that may help.

Please remember all of us in you thoughts and prayers. You may contact us if you wish by email or phone. Home 510-659-1413. Emailrfbynum@...

Best Regards, Bob Bynum, Scree Editor 1997-2004

Editor’s Notes

Breaking News!!! You can now join the Peak Climbing Section's Facebook Fan Page, http://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Peak-Climbing-Section-Loma-Prieta-Chapter-of-the-Sierra-Club/171564843888 (once a few more of you 'like' the page, we can give it an easier URL). There isn't much content yet, but it is an easy way to connect and communicate with other members of the PCS.  Judy

Chair column

After last month's highly successful 14er show we will go back to having a regular slide show this month.

The summer climbing season is starting soon. With all the snow this winter things will probably be different from many recent years. Should be interesting. As always we have many interesting trips lined up, but could use a few more. Please send you great trip descriptions to Louise or talk your favorite leader into leading the trip you always wanted to do!

As always I am looking for suggestions for future slideshows. Would be great to have a few ready to make sure that we will not have more gaps.

And don't forget that next month is our annual picnic/barbecue. Stay tuned for details!


Snow Report

This year peaks are harder to climb than usual due to much more snow than normal for this time of the year.  The following link shows a

graph of how little the snow has melted.  Measurements are relative to

average of all years as of April 1.  See


On Memorial Day weekend we had excellent skiing above 9000 feet in the central Sierra.  All the lakes are totally frozen above 10,000 feet except near the inlets and outlets.  Some peaks sport huge cornices at the top of snow slopes.


             PCS Trip Calendar

These are required statements.

Note: CST 2087766-40. Registration as a seller of travel does not constitute approval by the State of California.

Note: All Sierra Club trips require you to sign a Liability Waiver.


June 12 - 13 - Mt. Gayley

Leader: Louise Wholey

June 16 - 17 - Mt. Harrington

Leader: Louise Wholey

June 18 - 20 - Lyell and Maclure

Leader: Ron Karpel

July 3 - 5 - Mts. Bago and Rixford

Leader: Louise Wholey

July 11 - Castle Peak Day Hike

Leader: James Wholey

July 25 - 31 - Run the Table - Table Mountain and More

Leader: Louise Wholey

August 12 - 15 - Red and Gray Peaks

Leader: Debbie Benham

August 21 - 23 - Mts. Thompson, Powell

Leader: Aaron Schuman

August 28 - 29 – Unicorn, Cockscomb,

Echo Peak #4

Leader: Ron Karpel

September 4 - 7 - Puite, Petit, Volunteer

Leader - Louise Wholey

PCS Trip Details

Mount Gayley

Goal:  Mt. Gayley (13,510')

Location: Big Pine, Eastside

Dates: June 12 - 13

Leader: Louise Wholey     

Difficulty: Recent mountaineering experience required

We will backpack up the North Fork of Big Pine Creek to Sam Mack Meadow via Black Lake. This is about 8 miles and climbs from 7600' to 11,000'. There may be snow covering the trail. For the peak climb to Glacier Notch (13,080') via Palisade Glacier and a chute covered with snow over loose rock, class 3 - ice axe and crampons needed. Follow the 'Yellow Brick Road' (ledges on the right hand side of the SW ridge) to the summit. This is a difficult trip. We may consider using skis or snowshoes to get to camp. An early morning departure should make the snow firm enough for travel using crampons and ice axe. The route is class 3. Extensive recent mountaineering experience with ice axe and crampons, recent travel at altitude, excellent physical condition, and snow camping experience are all required. Equipment required: boot crampons, ice axe, helmet, snow camping gear, and possibly snowshoes or skis, skins, poles, and ski crampons. Recent snowshoe or backcountry skiing experience are required. This trip requires Sierra Club membership, filling out a medical form, and signing a liability waiver. Contact: louisewholey@yahoo.com

Mt. Harrington

Goal:  Harrington (11,009')

Location: Sequoia NP on Kings Canyon entry road

Dates:            June 16 - 17

Leader: Louise Wholey     

Difficulty: Recent mountaineering experience required

This is a restricted mountaineering trip requiring Sierra Club membership. Wednesday we will backpack to Frypan Meadows via Deer Cove trail 7.6 miles and ~3000 ft. Thursday we will climb Harrington (11,009), class 3, about 10 miles round trip with about 3000 feet elevation gain and hike out. This is a moderately difficult trip. We may have to carry skis or snowshoes to use on snow accessing Harrington. Early morning snow will likely be firm enough to use crampons. The peak is class 3. Mountaineering experience with ice axe and crampons, recent travel at altitude, excellent physical condition, and snow camping experience are all required. Equipment required: boot crampons, ice axe, helmet, snow camping gear, and possibly snowshoes or skis, skins, poles, and ski crampons. Recent snowshoe or backcountry skiing experience are required for those taking that gear. Contact Louise Wholey at louisewholey@yahoo.com

Lyell and Maclure

Goal:  Lyell (13,114') and Maclure (12,880')

Location: Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite

Dates:            June 18 - 20

Leader: Ron Karpel           

Difficulty: Class 3, snow and glacier

These are Yosemite's most sought-after peaks, so expect the roster to fill up quickly. Friday hike about 10 miles in the relatively flat Lyell Canyon from Tuolumne Meadows TH. Saturday climb the peaks. Sunday hike out. Participants must be in good shape, able to climb snow and ice, experienced in using crampons and an ice axe (prior experience a must) and be able to scramble class 3 rock. We will not carry a rope. Not for beginners. One wrinkle to consider: it is possible, due to the early date, that Tioga Pass road will still be closed at the time of this trip. If this happens, we will try to decide on an alternate destination that will appeal to most participants. This is a restricted mountaineering trip requiring Sierra Club membership. Contact: Ron Karpel, ronny AT karpel.org

Mts. Bago and Rixford

Goal:  Bago (11,870') and Rixford (12,887')

Location: Onion Valley, Eastside

Dates:            July 3 - 5

Leader: Louise Wholey

Difficulty: Possible ice axe, crampons, Class 3

This is a moderate intermediate level trip. Backpack from Onion Valley over Kearsarge Pass to Kearsarge Lakes. Climb Bago (11870) and Rixford (12887) from camp on the second day. Some climbing may require ice axes and crampons due to frozen snow. We may use snowshoes to prevent post-holing late in the day. We may climb Gould (class 3 summit block) if time permits on the way in or out. Mountaineering experience with ice axe and crampons, recent travel at altitude, excellent physical condition, and snow camping experience are all required. Equipment required: boot crampons, ice axe, helmet, snow camping gear. This trip requires Sierra Club membership, filling out a medical form, and signing a liability waiver.

Castle Peak Day Hike

Goal: Castle Peak (9,103')

Location: Donner Summit

Date: July 11

Leader: James Wholey

Difficulty: Class 1

We will meet at the north end of the Castle Peak - Boreal Ridge turnoff road from Highway 80 (0.6 miles west of Donner Pass). This will be a beginners' day hike up Castle Peak, and a likely return along a ridge to Basin Mountain and back past Peter Grubb hut.

Run the Table - Table Mountain and More

Goal:  Barnard Mt. (13,990'), Caltech Peak (13,832'), Picket Guard Peak (12,303'), Table Mountain (13,632'), Trojan Peak (13,947'), Tunnabora Peak (13, 563')

Location: Shepherd Pass, Eastside

Dates:            July 25 - 31

Leader: Louise Wholey     

Difficulty: Class 2, 3, mountaineering experience required

Backpack over Shepherd Pass and up the Milestone drainage to camp (2 days). Climb Table from the southeast, class 3, move camp to JMT. Climb Cal Tech from the SE, move camp to Bighorn Plateau. Climb Barnard and Trojan via SW slope of Barnard, traverse to Trojan. Climb Tunnabora via Wallace Lake if time and start hiking out. Hike out. If we get ahead of schedule, maybe climb Picket Guard. This is a moderately difficult trip with some challenging class 3 climbing and difficult route-finding on Table. The other peaks are much easier - class 2. Getting over Shepherd Pass may require ice axe and crampons. Mountaineering experience is required, including travel over snow using ice axe and crampons; also recent travel at altitude and excellent physical condition are required. Equipment required: crampons, ice axe, helmet. People need to know how to handle being belayed. This trip requires Sierra Club membership, filling out a medical form and signing a liability waiver.

Red and Gray Peaks, Clark Range

Goal:  Red (11,699') and Gray (11,573')

Location: Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite

Dates:            August 12 - 15

Leader: Debbie Benham  

Difficulty: Class 1 and 2 (suitable for beginners with backpacking experience)

Starting at Mono Meadows trailhead, we'll venture forth to the Clark Range to climb two peaks that sit right next to each other. So, put on your leisure suits and get ready for a John Muir saunter through some of the most scenic wilderness of our beloved Yosemite. Permit for 5. This is an official Sierra Club trip. Contact Debbie Benham, H: 650-964-0558; email deborah05 AT sbcglobal.net

Mts. Thompson and Powell

Goal:  Thompson(13,494') and Powell (13,356')

Location: Sabrina Lake, Eastside

Dates:            August 21 - 23

Leader: Aaron Schuman   

Difficulty: Class 2

We'll enter the John Muir Wilderness at Lake Sabrina (above the town of Bishop), and hike on-and-off trail past rockbound lake basins to our camp at Sunset Lake, below the stunning cliff face of Mt. Powell. We'll trek up to the saddle between our two peaks, and then climb them from the gentler southwest and southeast sides. From the summits, we'll enjoy spectacular views of the north faces of the Palisades. We'll camp a second night at Sunset Lake and hike back out the way we entered.

Unicorn, Cockscomb, Echo Peak #4

Goals: Unicorn (10,880'), Cockscomb (11,065'), Echo Peak #4 (~11,000')

Location: Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite

Dates:            August 28 - 29

Leader: Ron Karpel           

Difficulty: Class 4, rock, rope

Driving through Tuolumne Meadows one cannot but admire the surrounding peaks. Yet we are often too rushed to reach mountains in faraway places. This time we will stop and enjoy the ones nearby. To add to our fun, we have chosen peaks that require a bit of technical climbing. To be able to use ropes and climb as a group, the technical section is limited to one short pitch of class 4 or so. Participants must have previous mountaineering experience, must have experience with rock route of at least class 3, be experienced in tying in and giving top rope belay, and be in excellent physical condition. Not for beginners!!

This is an official Sierra Club trip. You have to be a Sierra Club member. You must include your Sierra Club number with your application to be considered.
Contact: Ron Karpel, ronny AT karpel.org
Co-contact: Charles Schafer, c_g_schafer AT yahoo.com

Piute, Petit, Volunteer

Goal:  Piute (10,541'), Petit (10,788'), Volunteer (10,481')

Location: Twin Lakes, Northern Yosemite

Dates:            September 4 - 7

Leader: Louise Wholey     

Difficulty: Strenuous

This is a "fast and light" style trip designed to cover many miles per day. The plan is: Day 1: Hike to Seavey Pass from Twin Lakes -15.2 mi, 2000' climbing; Day 2: Climb Volunteer and Petit from camp - 15.5 mi, 3600' climbing; Day 3: Climb Piute, hike to Peeler Lake - 14.4 mi, 5400' climbing; Day 4: Hike out, 8 mi. A trip report describing the route and climbing is available in the October 2008 Scree. Strong and fast backpacking skills plus recent mountaineering experience required. Contact Louise Wholey: louisewholey at yahoo.com

Private Trip Calendar

Important: Private trips are not insured, sponsored, or supervised by the Sierra Club. They are listed here because they may be of interest to PCS members. Private trips may be submitted directly to the Scree editor.

June 5 – Mt.Shasta

Leader: Ron Karpel

June 19 - 20– Mt. Shasta

Leader: George van Gorden

August 20 - 22 - Mount Sill

Leader: Kelly Maas

October 2010 – Nepal

Leader: Warren Storkman

Private Trip Details

Mount Shasta

Goal: Mt. Shasta (14,162')

Location: Mt. Shasta

Dates:            June 5

Leader: Ron Karpel

Difficulty: Must be in good shape, and have experience with ice axe, crampons, and self-arrest

We will climb the mountain by the Avalanche Gulch route. Drive Friday afternoon to the trailhead, get up early Saturday (2 am) and start climbing. Come back down the mountain the same day and drive home.

Participants need to have experience with ice axe, crampons, and self-arrest, and be in reasonable shape to climb the mountain as a day hike.

Send email to Ron Karpel, ronny@karpel.org, with experience and conditioning, and ice axe/crampons experience, H & W phones, and ride share info.

Mount Shasta

Goal: Mt. Shasta (14,162')

Location: Mt. Shasta

Dates:            June 19 - 20

Leader: George van Gorden

Difficulty: Experience in ice axe, crampons, and self-arrest

We will climb the mountain by the West Face Gully. We will camp Saturday night at 9000 feet, attempt the summit on Sunday and return to our cars before night. The route is not nearly as crowded as the normal route and, although a little more difficult, the solitude and beauty make it worth the extra effort. Participants must have training in self-arrest and feel competent that they can use their skills if needed. Contact: 408-779-2320; gvangorden@gmail.com

Mount Sill

Goal: Mt. Sill (14,162')

Location: Big Pine, Eastside

Dates: August 20 - 22

Leader: Kelly Maas

Difficulty: Class 4 and snow

Mt. Sill: One guide book quotes Walter Starr, Jr as having written ". . . it can be said to be the [ultimate] of all Sierra peaks in the extent and quality of the views it offers." It's also part of the main Palisades massif, overlooking the largest glacier in the Sierra. I'll lead a crack team of qualified adventurers up the North Fork of Big Pine Creek, across this glacier and up the North Couloir route. The difficult section isn't long, but participants must be solid on class 3 and must have some ice axe and crampon experience. A rope will be used. If you think you have what it takes, send me your resume. Map: Tom Harrison Kings Canyon High Country, or North Palisade & Split Mtn USGS 7.5 min. Leader: Kelly Maas, 408-378-5311, kellymbase-pcs@yahoo.com


Location: Tibet

Dates:            October 2010

Leader: Warren Storkman

Climb both Gokyo Ri and Kala Patar. 19-day camping trek, $1600.00 For more details, contact Warren Storkman: email dstorkman@aol.com or phone 650-493-8959.

Trip Reports

            Disaster Peak (10,047')

May 29, 2010

By Debbie Bulger

What should have been a 7-8 hour hike on a normal Memorial Day weekend turned out to be a 14-1/2 hour trek. The eight inches of new snow a day before our climb created slow conditions and snow from the trailhead. But what views! With the almost complete snow cover we saw none of the friable rock that gave Disaster its name in 1877 when the pioneering cartographer grasped some rocks which gave way resulting in two broken legs.

Richard Stover and I left the trailhead at 6:30 a.m. and followed the tracks of the trail crew for the first mile, then donning snowshoes, we continued up the Disaster Creek drainage. The snow was like an open book. Here grouse had foraged; coming down from the east ridge and crossing the meadow were the tracks of a newly-roused mother bear and her cub. Coyote tracks followed cottontail footprints.

In the approximately five feet of snow the elusive trail branching off to the east was concealed, so we opted to head NNE over the shoulder of the peak to the east of pinnacle 9200'. From west of that bump we looked down into Paradise Valley. Taking off our snowshoes, we got out our ice axes and ascended the approximately 40° slope to the top of 9200' and from there followed the ridge to the summit being careful to avoid the huge cornices to the north.

The red summit rocks were sticking up through the snow, but my search for a buried register was in vain. I did manage to photograph two exposed benchmarks, however.

Tired from more than a mile of kicking steps up the ridge, we rested briefly and plunge stepped down the southwest slope, hoping to locate the trail from above. It was 4:00 p.m. The trail remained hidden, despite the fact we scanned old growth red fir and cedar for blazes.

So we hiked down steeply, sometimes through brush, (over, under, and through), once over a fast-moving tributary on a chancy snow bridge, and sometimes postholing. We saw more bear tracks and on a creek bank, beaver tracks. We emerged on the main trail at about 7500' at 8 p.m.

We almost made it back before dark. A long but beautiful day. About 9 miles and 3600” elevation gain. A delight, not a disaster.

Julius Caesar

May 29-31 2010

By Louise Wholey

Photos by Louise Wholey and Monique Messieé

Memorial Day weekend is a strange time of the year.  The weather may be anything from hot as blazes to winter conditions.  This year we were blessed with perfect weather for climbing Julius Caesar and skiing! 

Christine Messié climbing out of Pine Creek

Julius Caesar has been on my list for quite a while.  Jim likes the name so much he also wanted to climb it, so I chose a 3 day weekend to make it a more leisurely outing.  Jim and I were joined by Monique Messié and her sister Christine for both the flight to and from Bishop and the climb.

Skiing worked pretty well above 9000' for the approach.  The price of skiing is carrying the skis when they cannot be used and climbing in ski boots, which is terrible on class 2 rock, but reasonable on trails.  Camp was at Honeymoon Lake where the brave young ladies enjoyed the cool water!

Christine and Monique enjoy the outlet of Honeymoon Lake

We rose to magnificent views on Treasure Peak above camp at 5 am Sunday, our day to climb the peak.  These smaller peaks block Royce and Merriam Peaks.

Morning view above Honeymoon Lake camp

Granite Basin is a long gradual approach to Italy Pass.  The route is a bit convoluted so one has to be careful to follow the map closely.  We did see a cairn so we knew we were on the marked trail, but it was truly wide open spaces – completely white with snow.

Italy Pass (right of center) and Julius Caesar (far right)

The skiing to the pass was fun.  We could see lots of beautiful peaks, including Humphreys, Royce, Feather and many smaller peaks.  Feather was the most striking.

Feathers on Feather Peak

We found somewhat steep (35°) but well-anchored snow leading to the summit.  Kicking steps in ski boots worked well.  When it became firmer we donned crampons.  On top Bear Creek Spire was a stone’s throw away, but there was a huge gap between the peaks.  Getting there would be quite a challenging descent and climb. 

Julius Caesar summit with Bear Creek Spire behind on the right

The descent was trickier because the snow had softened and clogged our crampons, but we kept our focus and made it safely.  Then we got to ski!  The snow had softened a bit too much (actually wet slop) while we were enjoying the summit, but we had fun descending and re-climbing slopes while waiting for Jim to descend more slowly on snowshoes.  We made camp fairly early and enjoyed our surroundings rather than ski out on the soft snow. 

In the morning the snow was perfect corn!  We descended and re-climbed the various slopes on the way out.  Our descents were always entertaining because it looked like we would land in the mine below if we missed a turn!

Monique displays her snowboarding talent with her huge pack!

Mount Lola

May 31, 2010

By Will Molland-Simms

On May 31st Judy Molland, Joe Baker and I headed to the Mt. Lola trail in hopes of summiting the 9148' Northern Sierra peak named after the famed Lola Montez. We drove from Soda Springs on a route which took us from I80 to highway 89 north which we followed for 14.5 miles before coming to an intersection with forest service road 07. We turned left on this road and continued about a mile and a half until we came to an intersection with Forest Service road 07-10. Here we turned left again onto a graded dirt road and crossed over  the Little Truckee River before coming to a 4-way intersection after half a mile. Turning right, we proceeded another couple of miles to the well marked Mt. Lola Trailhead.

We began our ascent slightly before 8 in the morning and found snow as soon as we walked off the road. The Mt. Lola trail is well defined in summer; however the large amount of late season snow buried it completely after half a mile of hiking. Luckily, because the trail is well used in the summer and is a popular ski tour in winter, blazed trees mark the approximate location of the trail and it is easy to follow even with a solid snowpack. After about a mile of following these tree blazes through the forest the terrain opened up and we came to the entrance of Cold Stream Canyon. We elected to climb the snow covered hill to the west side of the canyon rather than continue to follow the blazed trail to avoid the tedious task of side hilling in soft snow with snowshoes.

We ascended the moderately steep slope for about four or five hundred vertical feet until the angle relented. Once we crested the hill we tended slightly left, east, until we hit a wide, flat and treeless route heading into Coldwater Canyon. We assumed this was the old dirt road on the map and continued to follow it as it undulated its way towards the base of Mt. Lola. After another couple miles of snowshoeing we came to beautiful, snow covered Cold Stream Meadow. From this open spot we could see the mellow East Ridge and our route to the summit. Once we passed Cold Stream Meadow we stayed on the right, east side of the stream on moderately steep ground until a small section of level ground at about 8000 feet. From here we more or less headed straight for the ridge, crossing over the creek and meandering our way through forest and soft snow until we attained the ridge at about 8500 feet. From here it was a simple walk up to the summit. By the time we reached the summit the wind was starting to howl and light snow/rain was falling so we took a few quick summit photos and then headed down to get out of the deteriorating weather.

I had trudged the whole route carrying a snowboard so I gladly got a few turns in on the overly soft and wet snow before heading back down.

We more or less followed our pretracked route up and were back at the car at about 2:30 after an enjoyable climb up the thoroughly snow covered Mt. Lola.



Date: Monday, June 7, 7 pm

Hari Rai is a 17-year-old student who lives in a small Himalayan village in Nepal. To support himself and pay for his education, he works as a porter. In this documentary, Hari is hired to carry a CocaCola refrigerator to a repair shop, and the footage follows him through Nepal’s stunning mountainscape.

Patagonia Palo Alto

525 Alma St.


Click here for directions to the store:



Date & Location: June 9, 2010 at the Mark Hopkins Hotel in San Francisco. One Nob Hill (corner of California and Mason). For more information, click on:


                                    Elected Officials

    Jesper Schou / schou@sun.stanford.edu


Vice Chair and Trip Scheduler

    Louise Wholey / PCSchair@gmail.com

    21020 Canyon View Road, Saratoga, CA       95070


Treasurer and Membership Roster (address changes)

    Emilie Cortes / mountaineerchica@gmail.com


Publicity Committee Positions

Scree Editor

Judy Molland / screeeditor@gmail.com

PCS World Wide Web Publisher
    Joe Baker/ pcs@joebaker.us

    1975 Cordilleras Rd, Redwood City, CA         94062


Scree is the monthly newsletter of the Peak Climbing Section of the Sierra Club Loma Prieta Chapter.  Current and back issues are posted on the web in PDF and HTML.

Our official website is http://www.peakclimbing.org.  Joining the PCS is easy.  Go to   http://www.peakclimbing.org/join

PCS Announcement Listserv

If you join the PCS Announcement Listserv you will receive announcements and updates of trips and meetings. Use the http://lists.sierraclub.org/SCRIPTS/WA.EXE?A0=LOMAP-PCS-ANNOUNCE&X=&Y= web page.

Climbing Classifications

The following trip classifications are to assist you in choosing trips for which you are qualified. No simple rating system can anticipate all possible conditions.
    Class 1: Walking on a trail.
    Class 2: Climbing using hands for balance.
    Class 3: Climbing requires the use of hands, maybe a rope.
    Class 4: Requires rope belays.
    Class 5: Technical rock climbing.

Trips may also be rated by level of exertion: easy, moderate, strenuous, or extreme.

Deadline for submissions to the next Scree is Monday, June 28. Meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month.